glos·sa·ry: a collection of brief explanations (as in the margin or between the lines of a text) of difficult or obscure words or expressions.
TheMoedim.com has provided this glossary of Hebrew and Greek words to aid our readers in the understanding of key concepts used on the site.
seder- Seder is a masculine Hebrew noun that means "order" or "arrangement". This word is used to describe the "order" of the traditional meal eaten on Pesach in commemoration of the first Passover and Israel's Exodus from Egypt. Strong's #5468. Pronounced SAY der. Plural sederim.
Septuagint- A Latin word meaning "seventy" in reference to the seventy Jewish scholars who translated the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek. From the Latin phrase "versio septuaginta interpretum", meaning "translation of the seventy interpreters". The term most often applies to that Greek translation rather than the translators themselves. The translation occurred circa 300-250 BCE. Pronounced sep TOO uh jint.
shaliach- The Hebrew word for "apostle". It literally means "sent one". Strongs #7971. Pronounced shuh lee akh. Plural "shlichim".
shamar- A Hebrew word meaning "to guard" or "protect". It is often translated as "observe" as in "observe the Sabbath day" and other times as "keep" as in "those who love Me and keep My commandments". Strongs #8104. Pronounced shuh MAR.
Shaul- The literal Hebrew name of Saul [the Israelite monarch before King David] and the Hebrew name of Paul of Tarsus. This Hebrew name means "asked (of G-d)". Strongs #7586. Pronounced sha OOL.
Shavuot- The Hebrew word for "weeks". Shavuot is also shorthand for the Feast of Weeks (see Ex 34:22, Lev 23:15-16) which is called "Pentecost" in Greek. Singular "shavua". Strongs #7620. Pronounced shah voo OHT.
Shlomoh- The literal Hebrew name of Solomon. This Hebrew name means "peace" (from the Hebrew word shalom). Strongs #8010. Pronounced sheh LO moh.
shoresh- a masculine Hebrew noun that means "root" as in the root of a tree or plant. The word is also used to describe a "root" word from which other Hebrew words are derived. Pronounced SHO resh. Plural "shoreshim".
talmidim- A plural Hebrew noun meaning "disciples" in its truest sense: those who leave family to study and follow the ways of their teacher [rabbi]. They study not only to learn what their teacher knows but to become the type of man their teacher is. From the Hebrew root word "limmud" meaning "instructed". Strong''s #8527. Pronounced tal mee DEEM. Singular talmid.
Talmud- A Hebrew noun which means "teaching". It is formed from the verb "limmed" which means "to teach." The Talmud contains the written compendium of Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs, history, and case-law. There are two works with this name: the Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian Talmud. These names reflect where the (initially orally transmitted) information was recorded. The Talmud contains two primary divisions: the Mishnah and the Gemara. Pronounced tal MOOD or TAHL mud.
Tanakh- A Hebrew word that refers to the whole of the Hebrew Bible. It is formed from the acronym "T N K" (the Hebrew letters tav, nun, kaf) referring to the three portions of the writings: Torah, Neviim, and Ketuvim. Pronounced tuh NOCK.
Torah- The Hebrew word often translated as "Law" but which equally means "teaching", "direction", or "instruction". It is one of the words that forms the acronym "TaNaKh" used to describe the Hebrew Scriptures. Torah refers to the first 5 books of Scripture (specifically) or the entirety of Scripture (generally) as G-d's instruction. Strongs #8451. Pronounced TOE rah or toe RAH. Plural "torot".
Yaakov- The literal Hebrew name for Jacob. The name literally means "heel catcher" (Genesis 25:26) but implies "supplanter". Strongs #3290. Pronounced yah ah KOHV.
yahrtzeit- the anniversary of the death of a parent, sibling, child, or spouse, observed by lighting a memorial lamp or candle the night before and reciting the Kaddish at the evening service of the day before and at the morning and afternoon services of the day itself.
Ychezkel- (sometimes seen as Ychezqel) The literal Hebrew name of Ezekiel. This Hebrew name means "G-d strengthens". Strongs #3168. Pronounced ye KHEZ ke el.
Yehudah- The literal Hebrew name of Judah. The name means "I will praise". Leah gave him this name saying "This time I will praise the LORD". (Genesis 29:35). Strongs #3063. Pronounced yeh HOO dah.
Yerushalayim- The literal Hebrew name of Jerusalem. This Hebrew name means "foundation of peace" and is first found in Joshua 10:1. Strongs #3389. Pronounced yeh roo shah lah YEEM.
Yeshayahu- The Hebrew name of Isaiah. This Hebrew name means "salvation of Yah (G-d)". Strongs #3470. Pronounced yesha YAHU.
Yeshua- The literal Hebrew name of Jesus. The name Yeshua means "The LORD saves". It is the name given to His mother, Miryam, by an angel of the Lord (Matthew 1:21). Strongs #3442. Pronounced yeh SHOO ah. It is related to the Hebrew word for salvation, yeshuah: ישועה.
Yhoshua- (sometimes seen as Y'hoshua or Yehoshua) The literal Hebrew name of Joshua. This Hebrew name means "Yah is salvation". Strongs #3091. Pronounced ye HO shoo uh.
Yishmael- The literal Hebrew name of Ishmael. This Hebrew name means "G-d hears". Strongs #3458. Pronounced YEESH mah el.
Yisrael- The literal Hebrew name of Israel. The exact meaning of this Hebrew name is debated but can literally mean "he has power with El (God)". Strongs #3478. Pronounced yees rah EL.
Yitzchak- The literal Hebrew name of Isaac. This Hebrew word means "laughter" and is the name G-d gave to Sarah for her child. (Genesis 17:19) Strongs #3327. Pronounced YITZ chak.
Yochanan- The literal Hebrew name for John. The name means "G-d-favored". This was the name G-d gave to him when He spoke to his father, Zacharias, in Luke 1:13. Strongs #3076. Pronounced YO kha nahn.
Yosef- The literal Hebrew name of Joseph. The name means "let Him add". Rachel gave him this name saying "Let Him add another son". (Genesis 30:24). Strongs #3130. Pronounced yo SAYF.